In a previous post, I talked about how In-Cell Western™ assays could be used when studying apoptosis. So, you may be asking yourself, for what other applications can quantitative cell signaling analysis be used? GREAT QUESTION!!
Well, In-Cell ELISAs (as these immunofluorescent assays are also called) have been used successfully in studying protein phosphorylation. Whether you are looking at the effects of drug compounds on signaling pathways, or the timing/kinetics of signal transduction, or trying to determine the IC50 of compounds, In-Cell Western assays are a valuable tool.
Here are two examples of data from IC50 and EC50 determination experiments.
Figure 1. Use of cell labeling for In-Cell Western normalization. A) HeLa cells were treated with increasing amounts of rapamycin in a 384-well format. Fixed cells were stained with phospho-rpS6 antibody and NHS-ester reactive dye (for cell number). Dose dependent inhibition of phospho-rpS6-staining yielded an IC50 of 224 pM (n=4). B) Raw microplate image. For details, see Hoffman, GR et al. Assay Drug Dev Tech 8(2):186-99 (2010).
Figure 2. Dose titration of Wnt3a treatment of mouse L-cells. Half-maximal activation (EC50) of cellular beta-catenin levels occurs at 33 ng/ml ligand. Hannoush, RN. PLoS One. 3(10):e3498 (2008). Creative Commons license 2.5.
To help you get started in designing your experiment, here is a complete sample protocol for measuring IC50 of the inhibitor PD168393 in A431 cells responding to epidermal growth factor (EGF).
Check here for future blog posts on other applications of quantitative cell signaling analysis!