LI-600 Experiences

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As a result of the LI-600 Free Trial, researchers like you have endeavored to measure plants of various shapes, sizes, and color with the LI-600 Porometer/Fluorometer. From tropical forests and hydroponic greenhouses, the LI-600 has traversed continents—reaching unique organizations and universities with a desire to learn more about plant physiology and the natural world. Read about these research adventures here.

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Mason Heberling | Carnegie Museum of Natural History
Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Plant ecologist and museum curator Mason Heberling, along with postbaccalaureate student Abby Yancy and PhD student Cheyenne Moore, measured differences within and among stands of invasive knotweed species in Barking Slopes Conservation Area, a forested site along the Allegheny River.

“We scheduled a full day to learn to use it but were taking good measurements in just minutes. It’s perfect for all experience levels, from volunteer to experienced researchers, also making it ideal for student classroom work.”

Mason Heberling

Just northeast of Pittsburgh and across the river from Rachel Carson’s childhood home, Heberling, Yancey, and Moore tested the LI-600 on invasive knotweed species of high conservation concern. They are studying ecosphysiolocal differences in this taxonomically complicated knotweed hybrid complex consisting of Giant knotweed (Reynoutria sachalinensis), Japanese knotweed (Reynoutria japonica) and their hybrid, Bohemian knotweed (Reynoutria X bohemica).

Heberling and the students are using the LI-6800 to study the impacts of climate change and invasive species on forest understory wildflowers in a temperate deciduous forest. However, some knotweed stands are difficult to access with equipment due to steep slopes, heat, and humidity. With the LI-600, they were able to measure the stomatal conductance and chlorophyll fluorescence on light and dark adapted leaves in multiple stands in the middle of the night and the following mid-morning. With the LI-600 as a complement to the LI-6800, they were able to get a more complete picture of the functional differences among stands of this morphologically diverse hybrid complex.

Abby Yancy taking plant measurements along the river.
Mason Heberling taking plant measurements with the LI-600 at night.

Rafael Loureiro | Winston Salem State University
Winston-Salem, NC, USA

Dr. Rafael Loureiro and his student Brian Evans used the LI-600 to gather stomatal conductance and chlorophyll fluorescence data in research related to growing crops In conditions associated with space exploration.

“The accuracy of the stomatal conductance data, when correlated with our abscisic acid presence in leaves, was astonishing.”

Rafael Loureiro

The only MSI/HBCU* in the U.S. that holds a Space Act Agreement with NASA Kennedy Space Center Food Production Team, WSSU’s Astrobotany Lab (ABL) works in plant physiology to help understand how crops will grow in controlled environments related to space exploration and off-earth settlement. Loureiro and Evans used the LI-600 to conduct readings in two experiments: one related to the improvement in the physiological responses and reduction of stress of crops grown in Lunar Highlands regolith, and the other to evaluate the chlorophyll fluorescence in ABL’s pepper variant (TG) that is grown only under blue light.

In addition to the data, the LI-600 trial allowed MSI/HBCU students who don’t typically have access to instruments like the LI-600 to be trained in its use and in how to interpret the data. “This, for us” added Loureiro, “was the most incredible part of this experience.”

*Minority Serving Institution/Historically Black Colleges and Universities
Rafael Loureiro posing with the LI-600.
Close-up of Rafael Loureiro taking plant measurements underneath UV lights.

Hunter Hammock | University of Tennessee
Knoxville, TN, USA

Hunter Hammond, PhD Candidate in Plant, Soil, and Environmental Sciences at the University of Tennessee, used the LI-600 to collect data on sweet basil under supplemental lighting treatments.

“I would highly recommend purchasing the LI-600 if your research group does any type of field or controlled environment work and is interested in taking chlorophyll fluorescence/stomatal conductance data.”

Hunter Hammock

Using the LI-600 to take data on sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) under supplemental lighting treatments of varying spectral quality, Hammock found expected patterns that complement the results of similar studies and discovered novel effects that he intends to explore further. He noted the ability of the LI-600 to rapidly take data across a wide range of crop types and treatments.

Hammock found the LI-600 user-friendly and comfortable. He also liked downloading his data directly to his computer for statistical analysis, finding it much more efficient than manual data entry. “Overall,” he said, “I think this is a great instrument that would prove invaluable for anyone doing crop physiology research.”

The LI-600 being used within a greenhouse.
Close-up of Hunter Hammock testing the LI-600 under grow lights.

Ian Major | Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI, USA

Dr. Ian Major used the LI-600 to test the gsw response to wounding in healthy and unhealthy plants.

“I did appreciate the quick matching and measurement stabilizing.”

ian Major testing the LI-600

Anticipating a new position in tree genomics, Major used the LI-600 to quickly test whether the responses in gsw to wounding are preserved in woody perennials. He also tested whether mechanical damage influences stomatal conductance and photosynthesis in older, unhealthy tomato plants.

He found the smaller and open cuvette an advantage for quick matching and measurement stabilizing, making the LI-600 quite useful for rapid screening.

Dana Dudle | DePauw University
Greencastle, IN, USA

Professor Dana Dudle and her student Daniel Saltz used the LI-600 to measure stomatal conductance and quantum efficiency of light-adapted leaves in the common reed.

“The LI-600 appears to be extremely useful for ecophysiology projects with undergraduates in DePauw Biology…, as well as for faculty-student research projects.”

Daniel Saltz field-testing the LI-600 with the common reed.

The aggressive common reed (Phragmites australis) is expanding rapidly in the DePauw Nature Park, the site of an abandoned limestone quarry that is undergoing primary succession. Under the direction of DePauw University Professor Dana Dudle, Environmental Biology student Daniel Saltz used the LI-600 to examine the stomatal conductance and quantum efficiency of light-adapted leaves in order to compare the photosynthetic behavior of the invasive horizontal shoots (stolons) to the upright shoots.

Dudle reports that an early glance at their data indicates that “stomatal conductance may be significantly different in the stolons than in the upright shoots.” She appreciates the LI-600 for its ability to collect data quickly and non-destructively in the field with straightforward training and recognizes the instrument’s high value for courses in ecology, conservation biology, and plant biology as well as research projects.

Daniel Saltz field-testing the LI-600

Amy Burton | Verdesian Life Sciences
Durham, NC, USA

Dr. Amy Burton, Senior Director of Product Development, used the LI-600 to evaluate abiotic stress responses in several corn and soy plants.

“We had a great experience using it, and we acknowledge that there’s a lot to know about it!”

Amy Burton testing the LI-600 on corn plants

Burton’s team appreciated the usability of the LI-600, finding it easy to install the LI-600 software on their computers. They gathered data from several corn and soybean plants to evaluate abiotic nutrient and water stress responses, generating quite a bit of data in a short amount of time. They downloaded the LI-600 data to the software and exported it in CSV format to a spreadsheet program without difficulty. “Certainly, a lot of development went into the instrument,” she said.

Sandra Paa, Laboratory Technician, Early Technology Validation, testing the LI-600

Clement Gille | University of Western Australia
Perth, AU

Clement Gille put the LI-600 to the test measuring stomatal conductance and chlorophyll a fluorescence at the Alison Baird Reserve.

“It is impressive at which speed the measurements of stomatal conductance and chlorophyll fluorescence are done.”

Clement Gille.

Gille, a postgraduate student, field-tested the LI-600 at the Alison Baird Reserve. The reserve is home to some of the richest and most diverse flora in Australia. There, Gille selected healthy firewood banksia (Banksia menziesii) for his measurements.

The LI-600 measurements proved to be highly reproducible and impressively fast, while the simplified interface was user-friendly. Additionally, its size and weight made the LI-600 well-suited “for measurements in the field, where the environment is not always friendly to carry bigger units around.”

Clement Gille field-testing the LI-600 and the LI-6800 at the Alison Baird Reserve.
Close-up of Clement Gille field-testing the LI-600.

Hervé Maumus-Hue | Ceres Greenhouse Solutions, LLC
Boulder, CO, USA

As a greenhouse engineer, Hervé Maumus-Hue searches for tools such as the LI-600 that help growers analyze a crop’s entire growing cycle in various locations then compare the plants’ genetics and cultivars.

“The LI-600 is a user-friendly research grade instrument allowing for fast measurements.”

Hervé Maumus-Hue utilizing the LI-600 within the greenhouse.

Throughout the week, Maumus-Hue assessed the LI-600’s abilities to keep up with greenhouse demands and found it to be a straightforward measurement tool for numerous crops—including Cannabis, kale, basil, lettuce, and mustard greens. He also noted that the LI-600 would be “even more powerful” when coupled with other environmental data instrumentation; as noted by other trial users, the LI-600 and LI-6800 are designed with this research style in mind and can be easily implemented in greenhouse settings like that studied by Maumus-Hue.

Hervé Maumus-Hue taking measurements with the LI-600 in the greenhouse.
Hervé Maumus-Hue showcasing the screen of the LI-600.

Tara Slaven | Government of Western Australia
Kununurra, AU

Research Scientist Tara Slaven checked electron transport rate and stomatal conductance of mango trees.

“We have millions of hectares of pastoral country in Northern Australia which could really benefit from research on pastures with this technology.”

Tara Slaven taking measurments of mango trees using the LI-600.

Slaven has conducted a fruit sunburn evaluation for over two years on behalf of the Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development for the Government of Western Australia. With harvests in September and October, Slaven is interested in how fruit trees function under temperatures up to 40 °C. A week with the LI-600 provided her with the opportunity to not only compare differences between the north and south sides of mango trees and among varieties but test native grasses as well.

Michael Loik | University of California
Santa Cruz, CA, USA

Professor Michael Loik, along with PhD students Daniel Hastings and Justin Luong, experimented with the LI-600 in International Drought Experiment (IDE) shelters.

“The ergonomics are excellent, especially if one is going to be carrying it around all day.”

PhD student, Justin Luong, taking outdoor measurements with the LI-600.

After working with LI-COR equipment for more than forty years, Loik put the company’s newest technology to the test. Loik, Hastings, and Luong measured coyote brush (Baccharis pilularis) in IDE shelters, or plots that simulate drought conditions that occur every one hundred years. The LI-600 was fast, allowing the trio to move quickly through their measurements and gain a better understanding of drought impacts on stomatal conductance and chlorophyll a fluorescence.

PhD student, Daniel Hastings, using the LI-600

Laura Chapin | The Ohio State University
Wooster, OH, USA

Research Associate Laura Chapin tracked plants’ physiological responses before and after drought stress using the LI-600.

“With the shorter time commitment required for LI-600 measurements, we can conduct other plant assays on the same day.”

Laura Chapin taking measurments in a greenhouse.

Chapin, working with the Ohio Agriculture Research and Development Center, analyzed vegetable and ornamental plant response to drought stress. Her research group largely assesses nutrient and drought stress responses during the production cycle, so Chapin took the opportunity to track any physiological responses with the LI-600. The measurements were taken so quickly that she noted how she began doing additional plant assays with the remaining time—thereby freeing the team to complete more projects and further their research in fewer days.

David Ellsworth | Western Sydney University
Sydney, AU

Professor David Ellsworth measured treetops at EucFACE, a free air CO2 enrichment research facility located in Australia’s Cumberland Plain Woodland.

“I’m impressed that an undergrad student can use this instrument fairly easily—that’s testament to its usability.”

Professor David Ellsworth measuring treetops at EucFACE.

Ellsworth, accompanied by several undergraduate and master’s students, began his trial with light and dark-adapted Fv/Fm measurements on Weeping Lilly Pilly (Waterhousea floribunda) and Brittle Gum (Eucalyptus mannifera) trees. His group reported that throughout the study, the LI-600 remained powerful, easy to use, and flexible.

Ellworth later tested the LI-600 at EuFACE, taking measurements from hundred-year-old leaves. The LI-600 was “user-friendly but not too technical as to be hard to use or understand”—which makes it an excellent instrument for researchers of all experience levels.

One of Ellsworth's students using the LI-600 for their trial.
A student of Ellsworth's taking plant measurements with the LI-600.

Paolo De Angelis | Tuscia University
Province of Viterbo, Italy, EU

Professor Paolo De Angelis examined evergreen species in the Botanical Garden “Angelo Rambelli” to verify the operational and functional features of the LI-600.

“The ability to concurrently measure the main environmental drivers (light, VPD) and related fluxes gives an extremely comprehensive dataset.”

Professor Paolo De Angelis examining evergreens.

De Angelis compared the effect of leaf orientation by measuring sunlight-adapted Bay laurel (Laurus nobilis) and narrow-leaved mock privet (Phillyrea angustifolia) plants within the botanical garden. After measuring ten north- and south-oriented leaves per plant, De Angelis remarked that the “short measurement times make the instrument very interesting for even intensive leaf physiology comparison.” He also commented that the LI-600 was lightweight and easy to use, and the “lack of cables and battery life allow prolonged use”—features that are imperative for extensive on-site measurements or field excursions such as that of De Angelis.

Professor Paolo De Angelis using the LI-600 to take some measurements on an evergreen.
Close-up of the LI-600 taking a measurement on an evergreen.

Dr. Nathan Lemoine | Marquette University
Milwaukee, WI, USA

Combining the speed of the LI-600 with the details from the LI-6800 provided a breadth and depth of measurements for Dr. Lemoine’s lab.

“The LI-600 could increase our data collection by an order of magnitude over the summer, just due to its ease of use, transportability, and speed.”

Dr. Lemoine performing lab measurements with the LI-600.

Dr. Lemoine, Assistant Professor at Marquette University, is already using LI-6800s to measure leaf-level gas exchange through A-Ci curves as he leads studies of the relationship between genotype and stress response in white campion (Silene latifolia). When the LI-600 arrived in his lab, a whole new dimension of capabilities arrived with it.

“The LI-600 provides us snapshots of stress via chlorophyll fluorescence and was a breeze to use. We conducted all measurements (60 plants) in less than an hour.” He adds, “We could use the LI-600 to then ask really high-resolution questions about temporal variability in stress: instantaneous, days, or weeks, kinds of questions that are difficult with an LI-6800 due to the time required to take each measurement.”

Dr. Lemoine pairs the LI-600 with the LI-6800 for lab measurements.

Susanne von Caemmerer | Australian National University
Canberra, AU

Professor Susanne von Caemmerer and technical officer Soumi Bala measured stomatal conductance and electron transport rate in tobacco and green foxtail (Setaria viridis) with the LI-600.

“The actual values measured agreed for both tobacco and Setaria with what we are used to seeing with measurements from the LI-6800.”

Von Caemmerer using the LI-600 to measure tobacco and green foxtail during the trial.

As Professor of Molecular Plant Physiology at the Australian National University’s Research School of Biology, von Caemmerer used the LI-600 to measure tobacco and green foxtail during the trial. She and Bala determined a “nice light profile and changes in conductance” in their measurements and achieved comparable results to those of the LI-6800.

Professor von Caemmerer is a Fellow of the Royal Society, the Australian Academy of Science, and the Germany Academy of Science, Leopoldina and serves as the Deputy Director of the ARC Excellence for Translational Photosynthesis.

Dr. Brett Wolfe | Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, LA, USA

Live oak leaves are a little tricky to measure, but that does not stop Dr. Wolfe.

“It is a big leap from the previous model, the LI-1600.”

Grad student Alexandra Eisley using the LI-600 on water oak seedings in an experiment.

Grad student Alexandra Eisley using the LI-600 on water oak seedings in an experiment.

Dr. Brett Wolfe, Assistant Professor in the School of Renewable Natural Resources in Baton Rouge, LA won a one-week free trial of the LI-600. He used it to measure live oak leaves, which tend to have brittle tissue and curled margins. Although they are tricky to measure, he says “overall, I was really impressed with the LI-600. I really liked the ease of use and the barcode reader.” In spite of the characteristic toughness of measuring live oak leaves, “I am very impressed with the machine and hope to acquire one soon” he adds.

Boris Lazarević | University of Zagreb
Republic of Croatia, EU

Putting the LI-600 through the paces, Dr. Boris Lazarević got busy screening phenotypic differences.

“I thought I was not using it properly because it is so fast and straightforward.”

Dr. Boris Lazarević screening plants and gathering data.

Not stymied by other demands, Lazarević had experiments ready to go when the LI-600 Free Trial showed up. In one test, he screened a group of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to identify how origins and morphology affect stomatal conductance and chlorophyll fluorescence. In a second experiment, he used the LI-600 to measure stomatal conductance, transpiration, leaf temperature, and light-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence of basil grown under different light intensities. He combined this data with gas exchange measurements from the LI-6800 Portable Photosynthesis System. Lazarević reports that the “LI-600 is very user-friendly and fast. It is the best hand-held device that I have worked with.” He adds that it has the versatility to be used in applications from ecophysiology research, plant phenotyping, plant breeding, and education.

Dr. Boris Lazarević utilizing the light weight and portability of the LI-600 to get information from plants that are on the ground.
Dr. Boris Lazarević using both the LI-600 and LI-6800 to gather data.

Kellie Walters | University of Tennessee
Knoxville, TN, USA

When plant physiologist Kellie Walters measured delicate lettuce leaves, the LI-600 was there to help.

“It takes the guesswork out of things.”

Dr. Walters researching lettuce propagation with the LI-600.

For Dr. Kellie Walters, the LI-600 free trial couldn’t have come at a better time. In the middle of a lettuce propagation experiment, the pandemic forced her lab to take an unplanned shut down for a few weeks. Upon returning to the lab, the LI-600 had arrived and Walters put it to work. “I’m happy with how fast the data collection is” she said. “It is really nice that the LI-600 tells you when to clamp the leaf.” Measuring lettuce can be challenging because the leaves are often thin and easily damaged. She adds that “the LI-600 is more gentle on leaf tissue” than other instruments in her lab that can damage delicate leaves during measurements.

Dr. Walters researching lettuce propagation with the LI-600.

Taylor Sloey | Old Dominion University
Norfolk, VA, USA

Aquatic plant ecologist Taylor Sloey measured wetland grasses in tough terrain.

“I would recommend this product to anyone interested in collecting F and gsw measurements rapidly, or in physically strenuous settings.”

Dr. Sloey researching in wetlands with the LI-600.

Dr. Sloey is a wetland plant ecologist who studies the impacts of wetland drivers (hydrology, soil physicochemistry, and biota) on plant performance. Her research is focused on habitat restoration and ecosystem management practices. The LI-600 was an ideal tool for her research because it provided high quality fluorescence and water use efficiency data, while being light and easy to carry through tough muddy terrain.

“Operation was very user friendly and set-up out of the box was almost immediate,” she reports. “The auto settings and automatic calibration/stabilizing modes made it easy to use in the field and downloading the data afterward was simple and straight forward.” She adds, “The user manual and online video resources quickly answered any user question I had. Although I had a short time to build familiarity with the instrument, from my perspective, it seemed more accurate than other handheld fluorometers I've used.”

Dr. Sloey researching in wetlands with the LI-600.

Aaron Hogan | Florida International University
Miami, FL, USA

From the Swiss cheese plant (Monstera deliciosa) to the dragon tree (Dracaena draco), tropical plant ecologist Aaron Hogan measured over 40 unique tree species with the LI-600.

“The instrument exceeded my expectations…I have to say, in my estimation, this instrument lives up to the hype.”

Catherine Bravo with the LI-600

Catherine Bravo assisting Aaron Hogan with LI-600 measurements.

Interested in tropical plant diversity and global climate change, Hogan focused his trial week on measuring more than 120 leaves at Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden. The LI-600—which “is outfitted with state-of-the-art fluorometry technology”—garnered high-quality data that “can readily complement more traditional gas exchange data (e.g., A-Ci curves).” In comparison to the LI-6800, Hogan also discovered that “all the fluorometer theory and application that comes with the LI-6800 has been streamlined and refined for the LI-600.” In just seven days of using the instrument, Hogan encountered wide applicability, unmatched speed, and ideal LI-6800 complementation.

To see his data and learn more about his trial, visit his blog.

Aaron Hogan showing LI-600 screen
Aaron Hogan showing LI-600 screen

Jake Emling | CropKing Inc.
Lodi, OH, USA

Horticulturist Jake Emling used the LI-600 to mass study entire greenhouses of tomato, lettuce, and Cannabis species.

“I found the most useful application to be the rapid sampling of plants throughout the greenhouses.”

Emling using the LI-600 at CropKing

Committed to improving growing practices, Emling concentrated his trial week on testing the instrument’s speed on large quantities of greenhouse plants. The experience affirmed that the LI-600 simplifies high-throughput research, allowing him to “take several different readings and measurements in a matter of seconds using only one unit” and to “save time and labor.” For Emling, the LI-600 plays a key role in increasing the efficiency and profitability of greenhouse practices.

Jake Emling using the LI-600 in a greenhouse
Jake Emling using the LI-600 on Cannabis

LI-600 Specifications

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