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Eddy Covariance Book

Eddy Covariance Method for Scientific, Industrial, Agricultural, and Regulatory Applications
by Dr. George Burba.

This Step-by-Step Guide to Flux Measurement Includes theory, experiment design, implementation, data processing, and analysis.

Citation:

Burba, G., 2013. Eddy Covariance Method for Scientific, Industrial, Agricultural, and Regulatory Applications: A Field Book on Measuring Ecosystem Gas Exchange and Areal Emission Rates. LI-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE, USA, 331 pp.

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©2013 LI-COR Biosciences. Any use of this material must be approved by LI-COR Biosciences. Contact LI-COR to request permission for use.

The "Eddy Covariance Method for Scientific, Industrial, Agricultural, and Regulatory Applications: A Field Book on Measuring Ecosystem Gas Exchange and Areal Emission Rates" book is intended to familiarize the reader with the general theoretical principles, requirements, applications, and planning and processing steps of the eddy covariance method. This book will assist readers in furthering their understanding of the method, and provides references such as micrometeorology textbooks, networking guidelines and journal papers. In particular, it is designed to help scientific, industrial, agricultural, and regulatory research projects and monitoring programs with field deployment of the eddy covariance method in applications beyond micrometeorology.

We hope that you find this information beneficial and look forward to receiving any questions or comments that you may have about this guide. You can contact us at envsupport@licor.com.

This book was authored by LI-COR Principal Scientist George Burba. Dr. Burba has been an integral member of the advanced research and development group responsible for research and development of fast-response gas analyzers. He has authored or co-authored over 170 journal and conference papers, books, and book chapters relevant to the eddy covariance technique, and has been an invited speaker at international conferences on flux measurements. He has conducted over 20 field campaigns and stand-alone eddy covariance experiments, and collaborated with researchers from Ameriflux, Asia Flux, Canadian Carbon Program, CarboEurope, Fluxnet, ICOS, NEON, OzFlux and other flux networks.

Contact LI-COR to request previous version (published November 2012)

A Brief Practical Guide to Eddy Covariance Flux Measurements
by George Burba and Dan Anderson

Training Courses

Eddy Covariance training courses are offered throughout the year at various locations around the world. Courses provide information on instrument use, theory, data processing, maintenance, and related topics.

Training courses are designed to be hands-on. Some of the topics covered during the courses may include:

  • Setting up a flux tower
  • Installing instruments using commonly-accepted best practices
  • Maintaining, calibrating, and troubleshooting instrumentation
  • Processing raw data sets
  • Applying appropriate corrections for site-specific parameters
  • Assessing data quality

Additional Information

If attending training in Lincoln, NE or Bad Homburg, Germany, lunch and local transportation is included. Attendees are responsible for their own travel, lodging, and other meal expenses. LI-COR will handle all lodging arrangements.

If attending a workshop at a different location, please contact LI-COR for further details on travel and lodging, as they may vary.

For more information on topics covered in a specific course, please contact LI-COR.

Training Schedule


Class Schedule

Below is a typical schedule for courses held in Lincoln, NE.

Day 1 (morning session)

  • Eddy Covariance theory
    • Long-term flux measurement example
  • Eddy Covariance applications and experimental design
    • Flux footprint and fetch requirement concepts
    • Designing and implementing an eddy covariance experiment

Day 1 (afternoon session)

  • Theory of operation for gas analyzers and sonic anemometers
    • LI-7500DS and LI-7200RS CO2/H2O analyzers
    • LI-7700 CH4 analyzer
    • Sonic anemometers
  • Biomet (biological and meteorological) measurements and sensors
    • Biomet data requirements
    • Energy balance closure
    • Sensors and stations

Day 2 (morning session)

  • Overview of setup procedures for gas analyzers and eddy covariance systems equipped with the SmartFlux™ System
  • Hands-on installation of eddy covariance systems
    • Instrument configuration, including cellular communication and SmartFlux
    • Wiring and system integration

Day 2 (afternoon session)

  • Software, operation, and maintenance of LI-7500DS/LI-7200RS/LI-7700, Biomet, cellular communication, and SmartFlux systems
    • Software installation
    • Operation and data collection
    • Maintenance and troubleshooting
  • Instrument calibration
    • LI-7500DS
    • LI-7200RS
    • LI-7700

Day 3 (morning session)

  • Overview of data processing
    • Principles and procedures
    • Software overview
    • SmartFlux System
  • EddyPro® and File Viewer software installation and sample data
    • Preparing data
    • Demonstration of File Viewer software
  • Hands-on GHG data processing
  • Explanation of EddyPro and SmartFlux outputs

Day 3 (afternoon session)

  • Hands-on ASCII and TOB1 data processing (optional depending on need)
  • Hands-on flux data analysis using Tovi
  • Processing your own data or exercising with provided data

Publications and Posters

See publications that use LI-COR eddy covariance analyzers.

Get the Publications List

Posters

2155 Past & Present Eddy Covariance Measurement Locations, & Still Counting
Burba G., 2019. Illustrative Maps of Past and Present Eddy Covariance Measurement Locations: II. High-Resolution Images. Retrieved August 6, 2019, www.researchgate.net 9 pp. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.33191.70561

Tovi, New Software for Flux Data Analysis: from Gap Filling to Flux & Footprint Partitioning
G. Burba, I. Begashaw, A. Forgione, N. Franken, F. Griessbaum, P. Isaac, D. Johnson, J. Kathilankal, A. McQuistan, A. Parkinson, M. Sun, A. Templeton, L. Woodford, and G. Fratini, 2019. Tovi, New Software for Flux Data Analysis: from Gap Filling to Flux & Footprint Partitioning. European Geosciences Union General Assembly, Vienna, Austria, 07-12 April.

Eddy Covariance flux errors due to synchronization issues during data acquisition
Gerardo Fratini, Simone Sabbatini, Kevin Ediger, Brad Riensche, George Burba, Giacomo Nicolini, Domenico Vitale, and Dario Papale, 2019. Eddy Covariance flux errors due to synchronization issues during data acquisition. European Geosciences Union General Assembly, Vienna, Austria, 07-12 April.

Investigation on the Importance of Fast Air Temperature Measurements in the Sampling Cell of Short-Tube Closed-Path Gas Analyzer for Eddy Covariance Fluxes
James Kathilankal, Gerardo Fratini, George Burba, 2014. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, California, 15-19 December.

A New Tool for Automated Data Collection and Complete On-Site Flux Data Processing for Eddy Covariance Measurements
Israel Begashaw, James Kathilankal, Jiahong Li, Kevin Beaty, Kevin Ediger, Antonio Forgione, Gerardo Fratini, David Johnson, Michael Velgersdyk, Liukang Xu, George Burba, 2014. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, California, 15-19 December.

Direct Continuous Measurements of Methane Emissions From a Landfill
George Burba, Liukang Xu, Xiaomao Lin, Jim Amen, Karla Welding, Dayle McDermitt, 2014. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, California, 15-19 December.

Expanding Spatial and Temporal Coverage of Arctic CH4 and CO2 Fluxes
Patrick Murphy, Walter Oechel, Virginie Moreaux, Salvatore Losacco, and Donatella Zona, 2013. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, California, 9-12 December.

Efficacy of Using Eddy Covariance Method for Gas and Energy Flux measurements in Disciplines and Applications beyond Micrometeorology.
Burba, G., and D. Anderson, 2011. Efficacy of Using Eddy Covariance Method for Gas and Energy Flux measurements in Disciplines and Applications beyond Micrometeorology. European Geosciences Union General Assembly, Vienna, Austria, 03-06 April. Submitted

Combining the strengths of open-path and closed-path designs into a single CO2/H2O gas analyzer
Burba, G., M. Furtaw, D. McDermitt, and R. Eckles, 2009. Combining the strengths of open-path and closed-path designs into a single CO2/H2O gas analyzer. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, California, 14-18 December.

Solution for Minimizing Surface Heating Effect for Fast Open-path CO2 Flux Measurements in Cold Environments
Burba, G., D. McDermitt, J. Hupp, D. Anderson, and R. Eckles, 2010. Solution for Minimizing Surface Heating Effect for Fast Open-path CO2 Flux Measurements in Cold Environments. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, California, 13-17 December.

Calculating CO2 and H2O Eddy Covariance Fluxes from Low-power Gas Analyzer Using Fast Mixing Ratio
Burba, G., A. Schmidt, R. Scott, J. Kathilankal, B. Law, D. McDermitt, D. Anderson, R. Eckles, M. Furtaw, and M. Velgersdyk, 2010. Calculating CO2 and H2O Eddy Covariance Fluxes from Low-power Gas Analyzer Using Fast Mixing Ratio. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, California, 13-17 December.

Eddy Covariance Measurements of Methane Flux at Remote Sites with New Low-Power Lightweight Fast Gas Analyzer
Burba, G., L. Xu, J. Schedlbauer, D. Zona, T. Anderson, D.K. McDermitt, S. Oberbauer, W. Oechel, A. Komissarov, and B. Riensche, 2010. . European Geosciences Union General Assembly, Vienna, Austria, 02-07 May.

Webinars

Webinars cover a variety of topics related to ecosystem-level gas exchange, including details on the eddy covariance method, EddyPro data analysis software, eddy covariance system configurations, and more.

View Eddy Covariance Webinars